Muḥammad ibn Musa alKhwarizm is the founder of algorithm.
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Muḥammad ibn Mūsā alKhwārizm (Persian: Muḥammad Khwārizmī 780 – 850), Arabized as alKhwarizmi with al and formerly Latinized as Algorithmi, was a Persian scholar who produced works in mathematics, astronomy, and geography. Around 820 AD he was appointed as the astronomer and head of the library of the House of Wisdom in Baghdad.
AlKhwarizmi's popularizing treatise on algebra (The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing, c. 813–833 CE) presented the first systematic solution of linear and quadratic equations. One of his principal achievements in algebra was his demonstration of how to solve quadratic equations by completing the square, for which he provided geometric justifications. Because he was the first to treat algebra as an independent discipline and introduced the methods of "reduction" and "balancing" (the transposition of subtracted terms to the other side of an equation, that is, the cancellation of like terms on opposite sides of the equation), he has been described as the father or founder of algebra. The term algebra itself comes from the title of his book (specifically the word aljabr meaning "completion" or "rejoining") His name gave rise to the terms algorism and algorithm. His name is also the origin of (Spanish) guarismo^{ }and of (Portuguese) algarismo, both meaning digit.
In the 12th century, Latin translations of his textbook on arithmetic (Algorithmo de Numero Indorum) which codified the various Indian numerals, introduced the decimal positional number system to the Western world. The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing, translated into Latin by Robert of Chester in 1145, was used until the sixteenth century as the principal mathematical textbook of European universities.
In addition to his bestknown works, he revised Ptolemy's Geography, listing the longitudes and latitudes of various cities and localities. He further produced a set of astronomical tables and wrote about calendaric works, as well as the astrolabe and the sundial. He also made important contributions to trigonometry, producing accurate sine and cosine tables, and the first table of tangents.
Muhammad ibn Jarir alTabari gives his name as Muḥammad ibn Musá alKhwārizmiyy alMajūsiyy alQuṭrubbaliyy ( The epithet alQutrubbulli could indicate he might instead have come from Qutrubbul (Qatrabbul),^{[24]} a viticulture district near Baghdad. However, Rashed^{[25]} suggests:
There is no need to be an expert on the period or a philologist to see that alTabari's second citation should read "Muhammad ibn Mūsa alKhwārizmī and alMajūsi alQutrubbulli," and that there are two people (alKhwārizmī and alMajūsi alQutrubbulli) between whom the letter wa [Arabic for the conjunction 'and'] has been omitted in an early copy. This would not be worth mentioning if a series of errors concerning the personality of alKhwārizmī, occasionally even the origins of his knowledge, had not been made. Recently, G.J. Toomer ... with naive confidence constructed an entire fantasy on the error which cannot be denied the merit of amusing the reader.
Regarding alKhwārizmī's religion, Toomer writes:
Another epithet given to him by alṬabarī, "alMajūsī," would seem to indicate that he was an adherent of the old Zoroastrian religion. This would still have been possible at that time for a man of Iranian origin, but the pious preface to alKhwārizmī's Algebra shows that he was an orthodox Muslim, so alṬabarī's epithet could mean no more than that his forebears, and perhaps he in his youth, had been Zoroastrians.
Ibn alNadīm's Kitāb alFihrist includes a short biography on alKhwārizmī together with a list of the books he wrote. AlKhwārizmī accomplished most of his work in the period between 813 and 833. After the Muslim conquest of Persia, Baghdad became the centre of scientific studies and trade, and many merchants and scientists from as far as China and India traveled to this city, as did alKhwārizmī^{[}^{citation needed}^{]}. He worked in Baghdad as a scholar at the House of Wisdom established by Caliph alMa’mūn, where he studied the sciences and mathematics, which included the translation of Greek and Sanskrit scientific manuscripts.
Douglas Morton Dunlop suggests that it may have been possible that Muḥammad ibn Mūsā alKhwārizmī was in fact the same person as Muḥammad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir, the eldest of the three Banū Mūsā.
AlKhorezmi’s contributions to mathematics, geography, astronomy, and cartography established the basis for innovation in algebra and trigonometry. His systematic approach to solving linear and quadratic equations led to algebra, a word derived from the title of his book on the subject, "The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing".^{[28]}
On the Calculation with Hindu Numerals written about 820, was principally responsible for spreading the Hindu–Arabic numeral system throughout the Middle East and Europe. It was translated into Latin as Algoritmi de numero Indorum. AlKhwārizmī, rendered as (Latin) Algoritmi, led to the term "algorithm".
Some of his work was based on Persian and Babylonian astronomy, Indian numbers, and Greek mathematics.
AlKhwārizmī systematized and corrected Ptolemy's data for Africa and the Middle East. Another major book was Kitab surat alard ("The Image of the Earth"; translated as Geography), presenting the coordinates of places based on those in the Geography of Ptolemy but with improved values for the Mediterranean Sea, Asia, and Africa.
He also wrote on mechanical devices like the astrolabe and sundial.
He assisted a project to determine the circumference of the Earth and in making a world map for alMa'mun, the caliph, overseeing 70 geographers.^{[29]}
When, in the 12th century, his works spread to Europe through Latin translations, it had a profound impact on the advance of mathematics in Europe.^{[}^{citation needed}^{]}
The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing (Arabic: alKitāb almukhtaṣar fī ḥisāb aljabr walmuqābala) is a mathematical book written approximately 820 CE. The book was written with the encouragement of Caliph alMa'mun as a popular work on calculation and is replete with examples and applications to a wide range of problems in trade, surveying and legal inheritance.^{[30]} The term "algebra" is derived from the name of one of the basic operations with equations (aljabr, meaning "restoration", referring to adding a number to both sides of the equation to consolidate or cancel terms) described in this book. The book was translated in Latin as Liber algebrae et almucabala by Robert of Chester (Segovia, 1145) hence "algebra", and also by Gerard of Cremona. A unique Arabic copy is kept at Oxford and was translated in 1831 by F. Rosen. A Latin translation is kept in Cambridge.^{[31]}
It provided an exhaustive account of solving polynomial equations up to the second degree and discussed the fundamental methods of "reduction" and "balancing", referring to the transposition of terms to the other side of an equation, that is, the cancellation of like terms on opposite sides of the equation.^{[33]}
AlKhwārizmī's method of solving linear and quadratic equations worked by first reducing the equation to one of six standard forms (where b and c are positive integers)

squares equal roots (ax^{2} = bx)

squares equal number (ax^{2} = c)

roots equal number (bx = c)

squares and roots equal number (ax^{2} + bx = c)

squares and number equal roots (ax^{2} + c = bx)

roots and number equal squares (bx + c = ax^{2})
by dividing out the coefficient of the square and using the two operations aljabr (Arabic: الجبر "restoring" or "completion") and almuqābala ("balancing"). Aljabr is the process of removing negative units, roots and squares from the equation by adding the same quantity to each side. For example, x^{2} = 40x − 4x^{2} is reduced to 5x^{2} = 40x. Almuqābala is the process of bringing quantities of the same type to the same side of the equation. For example, x^{2} + 14 = x + 5 is reduced to x^{2} + 9 = x.
The above discussion uses modern mathematical notation for the types of problems which the book discusses. However, in alKhwārizmī's day, most of this notation had not yet been invented, so he had to use ordinary text to present problems and their solutions. For example, for one problem he writes, (from an 1831 translation)
If some one says: "You divide ten into two parts: multiply the one by itself; it will be equal to the other taken eightyone times." Computation: You say, ten less a thing, multiplied by itself, is a hundred plus a square less twenty things, and this is equal to eightyone things. Separate the twenty things from a hundred and a square, and add them to eightyone. It will then be a hundred plus a square, which is equal to a hundred and one roots. Halve the roots; the moiety is fifty and a half. Multiply this by itself, it is two thousand five hundred and fifty and a quarter. Subtract from this one hundred; the remainder is two thousand four hundred and fifty and a quarter. Extract the root from this; it is fortynine and a half. Subtract this from the moiety of the roots, which is fifty and a half. There remains one, and this is one of the two parts
Notes.
AlKhwārizmī's second most influential work was on the subject of arithmetic, which survived in Latin translations but lost in the original Arabic. His writings include the text kitāb alḥisāb alhindī ('Book of Indian computation), and perhaps a more elementary text, kitab aljam' wa'ltafriq alḥisāb alhindī ('Addition and subtraction in Indian arithmetic').^{[39][40]} These texts described algorithms on decimal numbers (Hindu–Arabic numerals) that could be carried out on a dust board. Called takht in Arabic (Latin: tabula), a board covered with a thin layer of dust or sand was employed for calculations, on which figures could be written with a stylus and easily erased and replaced when necessary. AlKhwarizmi's algorithms were used for almost three centuries, until replaced by AlUqlidisi's algorithms that could be carried out with pen and paper
As part of 12th century wave of Arabic science flowing into Europe via translations, these texts proved to be revolutionary in Europe. AlKhwarizmi's Latinized name, Algorismus, turned into the name of method used for computations, and survives in the modern term "algorithm". It gradually replaced the previous abacusbased methods used in Europe
Four Latin texts providing adaptions of AlKhwarizmi's methods have survived, even though none of them is believed to be a literal translation

Dixit Algorizmi (published in 1857 under the title Algoritmi de Numero Indorum

Liber Alchoarismi de Practica Arismetice

Liber Ysagogarum Alchorismi

Liber Pulveris
Dixit Algorizmi ('Thus spake AlKhwarizmi') is the starting phrase of a manuscript in the University of Cambridge library, which is generally referred to by its 1857 title Algoritmi de Numero Indorum. It is attributed to the Adelard of Bath, who had also translated the astronomical tables in 1126. It is perhaps the closest to AlKhwarizmi's own writings.
The conclusion.
In this independent case, I tried to explain our holidays as much as possible. I think every state should have national holidays.For abouve maintioned reasouses I am proud of our scientist.
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